Psychology assignment

1. Psychological abnormality is generally defined using “the four D’s.” First, explain what the four Ds are and what they mean regarding psychological abnormality. Then provide an example of a time when each aspect of abnormality would not be considered abnormal.

2. Suppose a friend says to you, “I feel really lousy today, and I don’t know why. You’re taking abnormal psych—what do you think?” If, after a conversation, your friend feels better about things, have you provided psychological therapy? Why or why not? Include the essential features of therapy in your answer.

3. What is demonology? How does demonology stand in the way of a more complete understanding of the causes and treatment of psychological abnormality?

4. Discuss the contributions of three individuals to the treatment of abnormal psychology. Be sure to include when and where each lived.

5. Create a time line on which you place five major events in the history of abnormality. Briefly describe why each event is important to an understanding of abnormality.

6. Define and contrast the somatogenic and psychogenic perspectives regarding abnormal psychological functioning, and provide at least one example of evidence supporting each perspective.

7. Assume that Benjamin Rush and Dorothea Dix suddenly appeared in the twenty-first century, about 50 years after the U.S. policy of deinstitutionalization began. What would they think about our treatment of the “mentally ill”? What suggestions might they make for changes in our policy of deinstitutionalization?

8. According to your text, deinstitutionalization has resulted, in part, in large numbers of people with severe psychological disturbances either becoming homeless or ending up in jail or prison. Is deinstitutionalization an ethical and appropriate strategy for the treatment of mental illness that the United States should continue to follow? Back up your answer with specific examples.

9. Increasingly, people seeking treatment for mental health reasons are members of managed care programs. How are managed care programs changing how psychological services are provided? Discuss one advantage and one disadvantage of such programs.

10. Clinical psychologists, psychiatrists, and clinical researchers are mental health professionals that work in the area of psychological abnormality. Describe what each does and how they differ from each other.

11. What are important differences between case studies and single-subject experiments? Be sure to mention advantages and disadvantages of each.

12. Case studies can be used to help more than just the one being studied. Briefly describe three ways one could use information gathered from a case study besides helping the one being studied.

13. Describe three hypothetical correlations: positive correlations, negative correlations, and unrelated correlations, and give an example for each.

14. A major shortcoming of a correlational study is that even when a correlation between two variables is statistically significant, one cannot infer causation. For example, a significant correlation exists between life stress and depression, yet one cannot say for sure that life stress causes depression. Given this major shortcoming, what are some specific reasons one might still wish to conduct a correlational study, as opposed to an experimental study (from which one might infer a cause-and-effect relationship)?

15. Assume that a researcher wishes to do research designed to pinpoint early-childhood events related to later development of eating disorders such as anorexia nervosa. What type of investigation might the researcher use? What would be potential strengths and weaknesses of that type of investigation? Finally, are there any ethical concerns the researcher ought to address?

16. Design an experiment to test the hypothesis that older women who take estrogen are less likely to develop Alzheimer’s disease. Be sure to identify the control group, experimental group, independent variable, and dependent variable.

17. A researcher wishes to use experimentation to study the effect of stress on the development of abnormal behaviors. Describe how the researcher might conduct that study, using either natural or analogue experiments.

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